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I have only used a .25mm Rapidograph since 1971. While I use aids like a compass or straight edge for an initial pencil sketch, once I pick up the pen, everything is completely freehand.

Within each picture I follow self-imposed rules that I believe are consequential to the quality of the result. These can be anything from the average size of stars in a night sky to whether a texture using smaller pictures is to be predominantly actual objects or abstract doodles. The rules are different for each drawing.

The smaller pictures embedded in my drawings are an essential component of my work. Aside from the unique texture they provide, they are unplanned and result from a stream of consciousness: I don’t know what I’m drawing until I start drawing it. Visitors are always amazed watching the process at shows.

The deliberateness and intentionality due to my rules contrasted with the randomness and chaos from my doodles creates a dynamic tension people find interesting and engaging.

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